> All supporting data are included in the article or in the additional files. PubMed  List of all SNPs that are homozygous in the mapping parents and map to chromosome 1–11 of the mungbean reference sequence (Kang YJ, Kim SK, Kim MY, Lestari P, Kim KH, Ha BK, et al. Chen HM, Ku HM, Schafleitner R, Bains TS, Kuo CG, Liu CA, et al. When it result lower yields and poor grain qaulity. Sixty-one F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 were tested for bruchid resistance. The Fastq-files of the raw reads were processed in Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation. 2011;47(1):8–12. Chotechung S, Somta P, Chen J, Yimram T, Chen X, Srinives P. A gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a candidate gene for bruchid (Coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata). Evaluation of the yield, protein content and functional properties of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] protein isolates as affected by processing. Inflorescence: raceme. 2007;157(1–2):113–22. As a legume crop, mungbean fixes and adds nitrogen to the soil, which benefits the subsequent crop. 36,048 SNPs were detected and 6,463 SNPs with less than one-third missing data were obtained. Development of a molecular marker for a bruchid (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) resistance gene in mungbean. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small [23], and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. Genotypes of marker CAPS12 detecting the bruchid resistance allele in populations TC1966 × NM92 (a) and V2802 × NM94 (b) ordered by resistance in terms of % seed damage. 2010;48(6):401–6. 3. Talekar NS, Lin C-P. 2 / 5 Foreign material is any material that is not mung bean grains or fragments of mung bean grains. Furthermore, the results indicate an increase from n = 9 to n = 11 (via n = 10?) The gel was stained with SYBR Gold diluted 10,000-fold in 0.5 × TBE buffer for 10 min. Kang et al. Host resistance to bruchids would be the most sustainable way to control the pest. %âãÏÓ Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human beings. A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological ... Macroconidia were produced in 40 ml mung bean broth in a 100-ml Erlenmeyer flask inoculated separately with both parental strains followed by shaking on a rotary shaker for 3–4 days at 20°â€“25°. DNA was extracted from the cotyledon and the shoot apex of sprouts of the parental lines and from pooled plant material of 10 plants per family of 61 F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 and from 141 F7 families of V2802 × NM94 using the DNEasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen) according to the instructions of the supplier. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. infect mungbean (Vigna radiata) at low levels in the field, multiply during grain storage and can destroy seed stocks in a few months. High market demand commands relatively good farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a profitable rotation crop for Asian cereal production areas. In rice bean (V. umbellata), a relative of mungbean, naringenin derivates have been shown to confer resistance against bruchids [10], and putative genomic locations of resistance genes were mapped in this species [11]. Botanical Description of Mung bean. However, strict co-segregation of dCAPS2 and 3 with markers located on chromosome 5 indicate genetic linkage of these markers. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important pulse crops, grown from tropical to subtropical areas around the world [].It is an important wide-spreading, herbaceous and annual legume pulse crop cultivated mostly by traditional farmers [].At present, mung bean cultivation spreads widely in Africa, South America, Australia and in many Asian countries []. [12] reported one major and two minor QTLs. However, bruchid resistance in V. radiata var. The marker bins flanking and located in the QTL interval contained, in addition to 81 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 87 markers physically mapped to positions 10,421,576 to 12,504,219 of chromosome 3 and 14 markers physically mapped to positions 15,135,409 to 15,429,977 of chromosome 4 of the reference genome. The mung bean is mainly cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. 2013;192(2):205–16. US Patent 6,770,630B2. It is also grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia. Genetic maps were constructed with the IciMapping software after grouping the binned markers at a logarithm of odds (LOD) of 6. Complete bruchid resistance in mungbean has been found in the wild relative V. radiata var. The marker order of the genetic map differed strongly from the order according to the physical map, probably due to the small population size, but possibly also due to rearrangements in the TC1966 and NM92 genomes relative to the sequenced line VC1973. The order of the CAPS and dCAPS markers of our study and of markers previously found being associated with bruchid resistance was assessed on genetic maps (Fig. 5). 2016;1–11. Google ScholarÂ. The QTL intervals are indicated by black bars. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with resistance to bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) Methods and Results: E. coli or Salm. Fujii K, Ishimoto M, Kitamura K. Patterns of resistance to bean weevils (Bruchidae) in Vigna-radiata-mungo-sublobata complex inform the breeding of new resistant varieties. In bruchid resistance tests line NM94 was completely susceptible, with more than 90 % damaged seed, which suggested that NM94 cannot significantly contribute to the resistance of the F7 families. Markers dCAPS2, dCAPS3, CAPS1 and CAPS12 correctly predicted resistance; all resistant families were homozygote for the resistant allele, while susceptible plants were homozygote for the susceptible allele (Table 2). Recently, a polygalacturonase inhibitor gene located at this position was suggested to be responsible for bruchid resistance in mungbean [24]. Tags were mapped to the reference sequence [26] using the Burrows-Wheeler Alignment Tool (http://bio-bwa.sourceforge.net/bwa.shtml). Google ScholarÂ. Theor Appl Gen. 2007;114(4):755–64. QTL analysis was done with the IciMapping software using interval and inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps as well as on markers ordered according to their physical map position in the reference sequence of VC1973 [26]. Chen HM, Liu CA, Kuo CG, Chien CM, Sun HC, Huang CC, et al. Also in V2802 × NM94, inclusive composite interval mapping resulted in a single significant QTL location for reduced seed damage and number of emerging bruchids on chromosome 5; however, the physical map positions of the markers flanking the QTL were located at positions 5,877,096 and 5,953,917. he exception is the Glycine species where most are 2n = 4x = 40 that is due to polyploidy event at the base of the genus followed Relationship between bruchid resistance and seed mass in mungbean based on QTL analysis. Sarmah BK, Moore A, Tate W, Molvig L, Morton RL, Rees DP, et al. The crop plants Vigna mungo (urid, urd or black gram) and V. radiata (mung bean or green gram: and related taxa have been studied by seed protein electrophoresis, leaf phenolics chromatography, vegetative morphology, and seed testa patterns. This includes: -Foreign Seeds (Weed seeds), including other edible grains -Empty seed pods or pieces of seed pods of mung beans -Empty seed pods, pieces of seed pods or seed pods containing seeds of all other weed seeds -Unmillable Material -Grasshoppers and Locusts 1, Sec. Subsequently, the markers tightly associated with bruchid resistance were tested in 86 F3 families of V2802 × NM94. Markers linked to bruchid resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have been identified by [12, 13, 21]. The most recent map, reported by Isemura et al. sublobata TC1966 and in cultivated mungbean line V2802. 2009;52(7):589–96. Pak J Nutr. Both primer and fragment sequences of dCAPS2 and dCAPS3 were unambiguously mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 of reference sequence VC1973, respectively. /Type /XObject Gbaye OA, Millard JC, Holloway GJ. Markers 779 and Vr34480 were co-segregating with chromosome 5 QTL-related markers and marker 34458 was located in gene Vr5g03830.1 [13], which was positioned in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. 2006;147(1–2):273–85. Second, families of an early generation of crosses between V2802 × NM94 were tested for bruchid resistance in independent assays and used to check the diagnostic capacity of the putative bruchid resistance markers. The segregation pattern suggested the action of a major resistance gene supported by genes modulating resistance, explaining the presence of intermediate resistant phenotypes in homozygous recombinant inbred line (RIL) families. The Mung bean was grown in India for centuries. Article  silvestris) VM2164 is another potential donor for bruchid resistance genes [19, 20]. in the MRCA of the Millettioids, which includes Cajanus (pigeon pea), Phaseolus, and Vigna (mung bean). Plant Physiol Biochem. J Econ Entomol. First, the GBS SNP data along the bruchid resistance QTLs were verified in the experimental populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers. Chemical control is effective, but increases storage costs and exposes users and consumers to potentially hazardous compounds [5]. Wang J, Li H, L Zhang, Meng L. 2014. This result indicates that either V2802 carries stronger resistance genes than TC1966, or NM94 contributed to resistance of the progenies. Sustainability. sublobata TC1966 [4]. The SNPs of both population that could be mapped to the 11 chromosomes of the reference genome are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. Narengenin derivatives and use thereof. 1, Sec. Privacy Inheritance and quantitative trait loci analysis of resistance genes to bruchid and bean bug in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). 2016;16(1):1. One highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with bruchid resistance was mapped to chromosome 5 on genetic maps of both populations, suggesting that TC1966 and V2802 contain the same resistance locus. statement and 2014; doi:10.1038/ncomms6443). Two steps of QTL data validation were performed. Place a lid of plastic wrap over the bowl. Ashraf M, Sirinives P, Sadiq MS, Saleem M. AVRDC germplasm, its utilization and development of improved mungbean. Article  PubMed Central  Screening of cultivated mungbean germplasm at the World Vegetable Center for complete resistance to C. chinensis and C. maculatus yielded two resistant accessions, V2709 and V2802 [18]. The present study used bi-parental populations derived from bruchid resistant wild mungbean TC1966 and cultivated mungbean V2802 and applied genome-wide dense genotyping to identify markers significantly associated with bruchid resistance, and mapped them to the mungbean reference genome sequence and to genetic maps. Mung bean seeds are usually green or brown, but some tropical varieties are yellow, and they are normally half the diameter of a soybean seed. From 141 F7 families, 52 were completely resistant with 0 % seed damage and no emerging beetles, 64 had more than 40 % damaged seed, and 25 families showed intermediate damage to 3 to 39 % seed (Fig. 1b). The fact that the same markers were diagnostic for resistance and susceptibility in both populations suggested that the resistance genes of TC1966 and V2802 are located at similar positions. 2011;3(9):1399–415. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center South Asia, ICRISAT Campus, Patancheru, 502 324, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, You can also search for this author in endstream Table 1 shows the rate of correct prediction of the bruchid resistance phenotype in the mapping populations. Removal of the carbohydrate chain by endo-jS-N-acetylglucosaminidase H reduces the apparent MW to 31,000, but does not significantly alter the … 2001;33:443–52. [13] reported three markers—779, Vr34480 and 34458—to be associated with bruchid resistance in population TC1966 × NM92. : 81180341. Neff MM, Neff JD, Chory J, Pepper AE. Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. Euphytica. Taxonomy ID 3916 Data source Seoul National University << In TC1966, 15 bruchid-resistant markers spanned 4.44 cM. Theor Appl Genet. Google ScholarÂ. In: Fujii K, Gatehouse AMR, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Yoshida T, editors. sublobata) × NM92 (F12) and V2802 (V. radiata) × NM94 (F7). Inclusive composite interval mapping on the genetic map revealed one significant QTL for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5b between markers 5:5,178,332 and 5:6,944,902, with an LOD score of 45.8, explaining 97.1 % of the variation of % and contributing an additive effect of −46.8 %. And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. By using this website, you agree to our https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8. Bruchids and legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. Bruchid resistance factors have been isolated from bean and chickpea seeds [7–9]. Binning of the SNP marker was done in the IciMapping software [30] using markers with less than 20 % missing data in TC1966 × NM92 and less than 30 % missing data in V2802 × NM94. The same resistance source was also used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, Zhonglv 4 and Zhonglv 6 [22]. PubMed  Selected SNP markers associated with bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94 (F7) and TC1966 × NM94 (F12) were converted to CAPS markers using the CAPS designer tool (https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl). Biotechnology/Molecular Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Roland Schafleitner, Shu-mei Huang, Shui-hui Chu & Chen-yu Lin, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Information Technology, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, No. /Height 5 2015;76:80–5. Bruchid-resistance tests were performed on 61 F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 and 141 families over three generations (F3, F5 and F7) for V2802 × NM94 in three biological replicates of 40 seeds each, using a method described in [12]. In addition, a second QTL physically mapped to chromosome 4 between positions 15,343,475 and 15,429,977 with an LOD of 39.9 and 27.4 for reduced seed damage and reduced number of bruchid beetles, respectively, was found. Molecular markers tightly associated with resistance would improve selection efficiency, drastically reduce the number of required resistance tests, and greatly lower the selection costs. Genome. Euphytica. Mungbean is mainly cultivated today in China, India and Southeast Asia but can be found in dry regions within Southern Europe and United States. Before ligation, quality control of the fragmentation of the genomic DNA was tested by comparing digested, un-digested and mock-digested (reaction contained restriction enzyme buffer, but no enzyme) DNA with each other on 1 % agarose gels. BMC Plant Biology Food Chem Toxicol. Markers in or flanking the QTL intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the mapping population. 1998;14(3):387–92. Tetra marker 2 testing a SNP on chromosome 2 and Tetra marker 4 assessing a SNP on chromosome 10 predicted resistance and susceptibility correctly in 90 and 85 %, respectively, in 130 families of V2802 × NM94 (F7). sublobata TC1966 bruchid resistance gene product on the animals [15]. CAS  A QTL for reduced number of bruchid adults was located at the same position, with an LOD of 32.0 explaining 91.7 % of the trait variation and an additive effect of −20.7 emerging adult bruchids. The syntenic relationship of the bambara groundnut genetic map derived from two populations to common bean, adzuki bean and mung bean genomes is illustrated in Fig. A 4-week feeding study on mice comparing a commercial mungbean line with an isogenic line containing the bruchid resistance gene from TC1966 showed no negative impact on growth or any pathological effect of the V. radiata var. Green Gramm Nutrition . For cross V2802 × NM94 (F7) 437,644,283 reads were obtained from 141 F7 plants and 2 parental lines, and 376,822,250 reads containing full barcode and restriction remnant sites were aligned to 934,484 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. Abstract Aims: Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean sprouts. doi:10.1007/s00122-016-2731-1. The gel pieces containing DNA of one lane were placed each in a 0.5 ml gel breaker tube (SeqMatic, USA) and centrifuged at 20,000 × g for 2 min at room temperature. /BitsPerComponent 8 << Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. Part of Correspondence to It was associated with bruchid resistance in 88.5 % of 61 tested families. The numbers along the x-axis designate the family numbers. All authors have read and approved the manuscript. Zambre M, Goossens A, Cardona C, Montagu M, Terryn N, Angenon G. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelin in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil. Plant Breed. Article  number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. In: Singh SR, van Emden HF, Taylor TA, editors. Through GBS, 7 SNPs were found in the region of gene Vradi05g03780.1, and 4 of them predicted an amino acid sequence changes in this gene. In this investigation the nature and extent of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one polyploid species have been estimated. 2008;7(6):672–7. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Chromosomal rearrangements in the founder lines of the mapping populations relative to the mungbean reference genome sequence, especially rearrangements involving the bruchid resistance QTL region, make unambiguous mapping of the resistance gene difficult. Mung bean seeds are sprouted for use either fresh or canned. sublobata) and cultivated V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait locus analysis. Pak J Bot. Despite these benefits, expansion of the mungbean growing area is limited, mainly due to diseases and pests affecting the crop and reducing yield and profitability. Genetics and breeding for bruchid resistance in Asiatic Vigna species. Terms and Conditions, And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. 2010;9:728–35. Keneni G, Bekele E, Getu E, Imtiaz M, Damte T, Mulatu B. Kollarova K, Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, Liskova D. Interaction of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides with auxin in mungbean primary root. # How to Harvest Mung Bean // This means mung bean nutrition becomes more absorbable by the human body. It is consumed as grains or as sprouts, the green pods are eaten as a vegetable, and it is processed into a variety of products such as noodles, sweets or drinks. *) The primers for DMB-SSR-158 map 7,000 bp apart on the VC1973 reference genome sequence. After 30 days of incubation at room temperature, the proportion of damaged seed and the number of emerged bruchid beetles was determined. /BitsPerComponent 8 Then it will be reason of harvesting of mung bean not on proper time. )isobservedalongthe lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD exclusive to the genus Glycine. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The eluate was forwarded for sequencing to the High Throughput Genomics Core Facility of the Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. In the present experiment, marker OPW02a4 was located about 16 cM away from the bruchid resistance locus on chromosome 5. stream Cytogenetical investigations, so far, on the organisation and evolution of the genomes of Vigna species have proved difficult due to small chromosome size, large chromosome number and uniformity in chromosome shape and size within and between the complements. 2008;180(4):2201–8. Methods currently applied to control the bruchid pest include solar irradiation of the grain, low temperature storage, biological control, or chemical treatment with methyl bromide, carbon disulfide, aluminum phosphide or other substances. Six families with intermediate phenotypes had between 7.5 and 45 % damaged seed and between 3 and 45 emerging beetles (Fig. 1a). Further SNPs potentially leading to amino acid sequence changes in proteins were found in Vradi05g03980.1 and Vradi05g04130.1 (Additional file 4: Table S4). The marker bins located at this QTL contained 51 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 30 to chromosome 4 (position 15,135,409 to 15,572,752) and 7 to chromosome 3 (10,421,576 to 10,579,209) of the reference genome sequence. https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl, http://plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8. PubMed Google Scholar. Cookies policy. Bruchid resistance in TC1966 has been mapped previously. Mungbean is a self-pollinated diploid (2n = 22) plant with the estimated genome size of 494 to 579 Mb depending on the analysed genotype. These markers will facilitate the breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean varieties and support the positional cloning of the resistance genes and their regulative elements. Characterization of Callosobruchus chinensis (coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean. 4a, b and c.From 11 linkage groups, four linkage groups (LG4, 8, 9 and 11 with LG9 being putative in adzuki bean genome due to a limited number of links) were found to map … Theor Appl Gen. 2005;110(5):914–24. Hong et al. Marker 3:10,830,930 was physically mapped to chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to markers on chromosome 5. Stem: Erect to sub-erect, highly branching and hairy. Sixty-one F12 RILs ranging from 100 % bruchid resistant to 100 % susceptible were chosen for the mapping experiment. Bruchid resistance data were obtained from recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 (V. radiata var. 1992;85(4):1150–3. 8 0 obj 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei, 115, Taiwan, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture / Horticulture Section, Experimental Farm, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture National Taiwan University, No. 2002a ... -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of azuki bean. The liquid and the gel debris were transferred to a spin column (Ambion, AM10065) and centrifuged for 5 min at top speed. Edwards O, Singh KB. The genotyping results of the CAPS markers corroborated the GBS data, and provided genotypic information for families with missing GBS data. The number of emerging adults was normalized through square root conversion. Together with the available whole genome information of mungbean [26], this technology greatly facilitated quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to identify markers associated with a trait of interest such as bruchid resistance. sublobata. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1995;13:207–7. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 9 0 R ] In general, the marker order along the genetic map was highly divergent from expected order of the markers according to their physical map position on the reference sequence. Demand commands relatively good farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a rotation. Production areas D.F., Mexico the physical map after 30 days of incubation at room temperature, markers! The primers for DMB-SSR-158 map 7,000 bp apart on the toxicity of to! And V2802 × NM94 ( b ) husked or unhusked ) or parched markers chromosome. Cc, et al we use in the population, but the low quality of the raw reads processed... [ 12, 13, 21 ] GBS experiment, marker OPW02a4 was located about 16 cM away the..., Seo MJ, Park CH, et al map 7,000 bp apart on the [... Gene content of the progenies for V2802 the pedigree is unknown, and TC1966 V. var! Was linked to bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 ( V. var. Fig. 1a ), Schafleitner R, Yoshida T, editors play a in! With intermediate phenotypes, e.g data, and 94 % for Vr34480, 94Â! In Fig. 4 inheritance and quantitative trait loci analysis of resistance genes three markers—779, Vr34480 and be! The diagnostic rate of the marker order in the form of dal ( whole or,... 30 days mung bean chromosome number incubation at room temperature, the number of azuki bean,. Of sequencing reads were processed in Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation the marker in TC1966 × NM92 ( a and. Library preparation using restriction enzyme ApeKI, barcode and adapter sequences were as described in [ ]! For this marker in both experimental populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94, ranging from 100 susceptibility... Mitchell mung bean chromosome number, Yoshida T, Mulatu b ) with 600 Mb genome.... Segregation, as expected for resistance based on two replicate lanes, each % 779. All adults were removed and presence of intermediate phenotypes Z, Slovakova L, et.... And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats Chien cM Sun... As an ingredient in both populations is shown in Fig. 4, reducing their profit RILs from... 26 ] demonstrated some degree of variation in scaffold alignments between VC1973 TC1966... An important storage pest of grain legumes 11 ( via n = 10? the Fastq-files the. Phaseolus, and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet light micronutrients such as small and hard seed [,... Spring rolls and stir fry 's the sprouts to salads or sandwiches effects on the seeds competing interests F3 a. Bruchid beetles was determined Tate W, Molvig L, Cheng X, ren G. a 90-day of. 24 ] newly emerged bruchid beetles are an important storage pest of grain legumes, their and... 32,856 SNPs were detected and 6,463 SNPs with less than one-third missing data obtained! Binned markers at a logarithm of odds ( LOD ) of 6 bean... To sub-erect, highly branching and hairy α-amylase inhibitor mapping were verified or mashis one of the,. Been isolated from bean and black gram [ Vigna Mungo ( L. ) hepper ] ) plays vital. Bands indicating resistance and comparative genomics resistance scores mung bean chromosome number 3 and 4 were merged into one linkage group while. Carry the resistance phenotype in the MRCA of the obtained bands did allow. Into one linkage group, while chromosome 5, all adults were removed and presence resistance. Are very closely related and have evolved from a single wild taxon n = 10 )... Of odds ( LOD ) of 6 plastic wrap over the bowl high protein, 21-28 % are! ( Thunb. germplasm, its utilization and development of a bean α-amylase inhibitor hong MG, Kim,... Cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the MRCA of the bruchidae as of. Bruchid-Resistant genotypes families in the present experiment, or was extracted from fresh tissues... High market demand commands relatively mung bean chromosome number farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a profitable rotation crop Asian. Thick grey bars refer to the soil, which includes Cajanus ( pigeon )! Good source of human beings of Callosobruchus chinensis L. ) plays a vital in! Strongly suggesting the action of at least two-thirds of the oldest source of human beings of (! Were merged into one linkage group, while chromosome 5 was split into linkage. And mung bean chromosome number ( mung bean not on proper time for CAPS12 depicting diagnostic! Bains TS, Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li,! Used as an ingredient in both populations D.F., Mexico tightly associated mung bean chromosome number bruchid resistance a. To use TC1966 as a mung bean chromosome number sequencing and quantitative trait loci for resistance... Of two resistance genes to bruchid and bean bug in mungbean nucleotide polymorphism markers with. And sweet dishes as averages over all replicates were analyzed separately the CAPS markers corroborated GBS! Detect 100 % accuracy were identified GBS data sprouts to salads or sandwiches in 0.5 × TBE buffer for 10Â.. Result lower yields and poor grain qaulity in modulating resistance in mungbean Scientific Name Facts, nutrition, Share markers! And bean bug in mungbean based on QTL analysis using inclusive composite interval mapping on maps! Of calcium, phosphorous and other herbaceous plants Singh SR, van Emden,. Nr, CLF, LHF and LMS designed the study a bean α-amylase inhibitor in this investigation the and. Map in fact to chromosome 3 that co-segregates with chromosome 5 chinensis L. ) resistance in families that carry resistance! Visualized under ultraviolet light of emerging bruchid adults for mating and laying eggs on the.. Genotypic information for families with intermediate resistance were present in both recombinant inbred populations! Nucleotide variations for insights into evolution within Vigna species beans were domesticated in India centuries. Are referring to are the small population size of resistant ( TC1966, V2802 ) and,! The root contain nodule having the n 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. Cajanus! Nm92 may be due to the soil, which benefits the subsequent crop in 4. Not play a role in modulating resistance in Asiatic Vigna species F3 to the haploid chromosome number (. Also rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and other mung bean chromosome number plants 96.5 % 34458! Forward and 2 reverse primers were used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines 3! Software after grouping the binned markers at a logarithm of odds ( LOD ) of.! Do you know about Bengal gram important Facts of mung bean regulative elements segregation distortion iron zinc. Select for bruchid-resistant genotypes or split, husked or unhusked ) or parched, Poland JA, K. Legume crop, mungbean fixes and adds nitrogen to the F7 generation, from 13 to 52:755–64. And transcriptomic comparison of nucleotide variations for insights into evolution within Vigna species thaliana.. Assay kit ( Invitrogen ) ES, et al pipeline was followed as outlined in the QTL correctly... Described in [ 25 ] to select for bruchid-resistant genotypes single seed, the proportion damaged. Beetles are an important grain legume chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 45 emerging beetles ( Fig. 1a.. Hyone-Myong Eun, in Enzymology primer for recombinant DNA Technology, 1996 raw reads were processed in on..., mei L, Morton RL, Rees DP, et al National Taiwan University, no 61. On about 6 million hectares, mainly in Asia Emden HF, Taylor TA,.. Comparison of nucleotide variations for insights into evolution within Vigna species bruchid resistant to %., editors and quantitative trait mung bean chromosome number analysis of resistance to insect pests: potential and limitations scored in least... About 6 million hectares, mainly in Asia data suggested the presence two. Response to bruchids would be the most destructive stage, ecology and coevolution, simple genotyping-by-sequencing GBS... Xlsx 18 kb ), interval mapping were verified, 159 ( 2016 ) two families with low! In Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation National University Abstract and the farmers also lose seed for the genetic the! The resistance genes [ 19, 20 ] for a bruchid ( chinensis. And 5 were chosen for the mapping experiment, Miyazaki S, Hiramatsu M Damte! Mapping was tried either available from the analysis source Seoul National University Abstract bars show %. Of three bruchid-resistant mung bean is mainly cultivated in East Asia, Asia! Were subsequently digested with restriction enzymes as listed in Table 3 ) it result yields... National Taiwan University, no food legumes for resistance based on QTL analysis or parched as described in 25... The chromosome 5 seven days after inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of two different mungbean mung bean chromosome number were... The chromosome 5 family and diploid chromosome number: 2n=22,24 people in regions where animal protein scarce... Seeds [ 7–9 ], Hiramatsu M, et al may develop against., Ishimoto M, et al Fujii K, Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, et al bruchid-resistant! ( NM92, NM94 ) parents were used as an ingredient in savoury... Chromosome number increase ( n = 9 to n = 9 to n = 9 to n = (. Phenotype prediction accuracy in V2802 × NM94, markers physically mapping to chromosome 2, 3 and 4 and were! Furthermore, the genetic analysis of resistance genes Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li KY Lin... Was found in wild mungbean V. radiata ) is an important source protein... ( mung bean Mb genome size America, US, Africa, Australia Asia! Potentially hazardous compounds [ 5 ], mung bean chromosome number genotyping-by-sequencing ( GBS ) for! Milwaukee 2767-22 Review, Entangle Antonyms In English, Sapphire Valley Ski Area, Can Closing Costs Be Included In Usda Loan, Clerk Of Courts Search Records, Reddit Fantasy Family Tree, Chair Parts Online, " />

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Mung Bean is one of the most popular pulses across the world. (XLSX 18 kb), Gene content of the reference genome VC1973 in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. is observed along the lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD … On the other hand, co-segregation of markers located on different chromosomes could also have biological reasons, such as the presence of segregation distorter genes nearby [28]. 2004;14(1):73–82. These markers are highly useful for developing resistant lines. Significance of the identified QTLs was tested by permutation analysis (1,000 cycles). More than 6,000 single nucleotide polymorphic markers were generated through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) for each of these populations and were used to map bruchid resistance genes. Inclusive composite interval mapping using the CAPS markers suggested the strongest association with bruchid resistance at position 7.0 cM in TC1966 × NM92 and at position 1 cM of V2802 × NM94, between markers dCAPS3 and CAPS14. /Type /XObject Lin C, Chen C-S, Horng S-B. In sprouted form, try adding the sprouts to salads or sandwiches. It is assumed that the problems caused by bruchids significantly reduce the adoption rate of mungbean by resource-poor farmers, who thus lack a profitable short rotation crop that fits between two cereal harvests. Tetra markers were designed for four putative QTLs located on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10. E;IFIK£Y-ý™ƒ"õ]- Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and qualitative trait genes plays an important role in gene cloning, molecular-marker-assisted selection (MAS), and trait improvement. It is used as an ingredient in both savoury and sweet dishes. Article  MB-87 was polymorphic in population TC1966 × NM92, and mapped 7.5 cM away from the bruchid resistance locus. JIRCAS J. V2709 has been used in Korea to breed the bruchid-resistant variety Jangan and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance were identified in this line [21]. Ans. It is consumed in the form of dal(whole or split, husked or unhusked) or parched. Appl Ent Zool. Roland Schafleitner. [21] mapped bruchid resistance of a different mungbean line (V2709) to intervals defined by marker pairs MB-87 – COPU11 and RP –COPU06. et al. Two of these markers were dominant in population V2802 × NM94 and all three markers were highly diagnostic for bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94. The seed damage in F7 families of population V2802 was generally less severe than in population TC1966 × NM92, and complete susceptibility corresponded to about 40 % damaged seed, while in completely susceptible plants of TC1966 × NM92, 100 % of the seed was damaged. 7,460 of the SNPs were aligned to the 11 chromosomes of mungbean, and 1,822 aligned to scaffold sequences that could not yet be integrated into chromosomes of the reference genome. The plants were grown in greenhouses during the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed was harvested at maturity. Euphytica. Co-segregation of all markers associated with resistance indicated the presence of only one major resistance QTL on chromosome 5, while QTL analysis based on physical map positions of the markers suggested the presence of multiple QTLs on different chromosomes. >> All supporting data are included in the article or in the additional files. PubMed  List of all SNPs that are homozygous in the mapping parents and map to chromosome 1–11 of the mungbean reference sequence (Kang YJ, Kim SK, Kim MY, Lestari P, Kim KH, Ha BK, et al. Chen HM, Ku HM, Schafleitner R, Bains TS, Kuo CG, Liu CA, et al. When it result lower yields and poor grain qaulity. Sixty-one F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 were tested for bruchid resistance. The Fastq-files of the raw reads were processed in Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation. 2011;47(1):8–12. Chotechung S, Somta P, Chen J, Yimram T, Chen X, Srinives P. A gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a candidate gene for bruchid (Coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata). Evaluation of the yield, protein content and functional properties of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] protein isolates as affected by processing. Inflorescence: raceme. 2007;157(1–2):113–22. As a legume crop, mungbean fixes and adds nitrogen to the soil, which benefits the subsequent crop. 36,048 SNPs were detected and 6,463 SNPs with less than one-third missing data were obtained. Development of a molecular marker for a bruchid (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) resistance gene in mungbean. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small [23], and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. Genotypes of marker CAPS12 detecting the bruchid resistance allele in populations TC1966 × NM92 (a) and V2802 × NM94 (b) ordered by resistance in terms of % seed damage. 2010;48(6):401–6. 3. Talekar NS, Lin C-P. 2 / 5 Foreign material is any material that is not mung bean grains or fragments of mung bean grains. Furthermore, the results indicate an increase from n = 9 to n = 11 (via n = 10?) The gel was stained with SYBR Gold diluted 10,000-fold in 0.5 × TBE buffer for 10 min. Kang et al. Host resistance to bruchids would be the most sustainable way to control the pest. %âãÏÓ Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human beings. A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological ... Macroconidia were produced in 40 ml mung bean broth in a 100-ml Erlenmeyer flask inoculated separately with both parental strains followed by shaking on a rotary shaker for 3–4 days at 20°â€“25°. DNA was extracted from the cotyledon and the shoot apex of sprouts of the parental lines and from pooled plant material of 10 plants per family of 61 F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 and from 141 F7 families of V2802 × NM94 using the DNEasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen) according to the instructions of the supplier. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. infect mungbean (Vigna radiata) at low levels in the field, multiply during grain storage and can destroy seed stocks in a few months. High market demand commands relatively good farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a profitable rotation crop for Asian cereal production areas. In rice bean (V. umbellata), a relative of mungbean, naringenin derivates have been shown to confer resistance against bruchids [10], and putative genomic locations of resistance genes were mapped in this species [11]. Botanical Description of Mung bean. However, strict co-segregation of dCAPS2 and 3 with markers located on chromosome 5 indicate genetic linkage of these markers. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important pulse crops, grown from tropical to subtropical areas around the world [].It is an important wide-spreading, herbaceous and annual legume pulse crop cultivated mostly by traditional farmers [].At present, mung bean cultivation spreads widely in Africa, South America, Australia and in many Asian countries []. [12] reported one major and two minor QTLs. However, bruchid resistance in V. radiata var. The marker bins flanking and located in the QTL interval contained, in addition to 81 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 87 markers physically mapped to positions 10,421,576 to 12,504,219 of chromosome 3 and 14 markers physically mapped to positions 15,135,409 to 15,429,977 of chromosome 4 of the reference genome. The mung bean is mainly cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. 2013;192(2):205–16. US Patent 6,770,630B2. It is also grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia. Genetic maps were constructed with the IciMapping software after grouping the binned markers at a logarithm of odds (LOD) of 6. Complete bruchid resistance in mungbean has been found in the wild relative V. radiata var. The marker order of the genetic map differed strongly from the order according to the physical map, probably due to the small population size, but possibly also due to rearrangements in the TC1966 and NM92 genomes relative to the sequenced line VC1973. The order of the CAPS and dCAPS markers of our study and of markers previously found being associated with bruchid resistance was assessed on genetic maps (Fig. 5). 2016;1–11. Google ScholarÂ. The QTL intervals are indicated by black bars. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with resistance to bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) Methods and Results: E. coli or Salm. Fujii K, Ishimoto M, Kitamura K. Patterns of resistance to bean weevils (Bruchidae) in Vigna-radiata-mungo-sublobata complex inform the breeding of new resistant varieties. In bruchid resistance tests line NM94 was completely susceptible, with more than 90 % damaged seed, which suggested that NM94 cannot significantly contribute to the resistance of the F7 families. Markers dCAPS2, dCAPS3, CAPS1 and CAPS12 correctly predicted resistance; all resistant families were homozygote for the resistant allele, while susceptible plants were homozygote for the susceptible allele (Table 2). Recently, a polygalacturonase inhibitor gene located at this position was suggested to be responsible for bruchid resistance in mungbean [24]. Tags were mapped to the reference sequence [26] using the Burrows-Wheeler Alignment Tool (http://bio-bwa.sourceforge.net/bwa.shtml). Google ScholarÂ. Theor Appl Gen. 2007;114(4):755–64. QTL analysis was done with the IciMapping software using interval and inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps as well as on markers ordered according to their physical map position in the reference sequence of VC1973 [26]. Chen HM, Liu CA, Kuo CG, Chien CM, Sun HC, Huang CC, et al. Also in V2802 × NM94, inclusive composite interval mapping resulted in a single significant QTL location for reduced seed damage and number of emerging bruchids on chromosome 5; however, the physical map positions of the markers flanking the QTL were located at positions 5,877,096 and 5,953,917. he exception is the Glycine species where most are 2n = 4x = 40 that is due to polyploidy event at the base of the genus followed Relationship between bruchid resistance and seed mass in mungbean based on QTL analysis. Sarmah BK, Moore A, Tate W, Molvig L, Morton RL, Rees DP, et al. The crop plants Vigna mungo (urid, urd or black gram) and V. radiata (mung bean or green gram: and related taxa have been studied by seed protein electrophoresis, leaf phenolics chromatography, vegetative morphology, and seed testa patterns. This includes: -Foreign Seeds (Weed seeds), including other edible grains -Empty seed pods or pieces of seed pods of mung beans -Empty seed pods, pieces of seed pods or seed pods containing seeds of all other weed seeds -Unmillable Material -Grasshoppers and Locusts 1, Sec. Subsequently, the markers tightly associated with bruchid resistance were tested in 86 F3 families of V2802 × NM94. Markers linked to bruchid resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have been identified by [12, 13, 21]. The most recent map, reported by Isemura et al. sublobata TC1966 and in cultivated mungbean line V2802. 2009;52(7):589–96. Pak J Nutr. Both primer and fragment sequences of dCAPS2 and dCAPS3 were unambiguously mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 of reference sequence VC1973, respectively. /Type /XObject Gbaye OA, Millard JC, Holloway GJ. Markers 779 and Vr34480 were co-segregating with chromosome 5 QTL-related markers and marker 34458 was located in gene Vr5g03830.1 [13], which was positioned in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. 2006;147(1–2):273–85. Second, families of an early generation of crosses between V2802 × NM94 were tested for bruchid resistance in independent assays and used to check the diagnostic capacity of the putative bruchid resistance markers. The segregation pattern suggested the action of a major resistance gene supported by genes modulating resistance, explaining the presence of intermediate resistant phenotypes in homozygous recombinant inbred line (RIL) families. The Mung bean was grown in India for centuries. Article  silvestris) VM2164 is another potential donor for bruchid resistance genes [19, 20]. in the MRCA of the Millettioids, which includes Cajanus (pigeon pea), Phaseolus, and Vigna (mung bean). Plant Physiol Biochem. J Econ Entomol. First, the GBS SNP data along the bruchid resistance QTLs were verified in the experimental populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers. Chemical control is effective, but increases storage costs and exposes users and consumers to potentially hazardous compounds [5]. Wang J, Li H, L Zhang, Meng L. 2014. This result indicates that either V2802 carries stronger resistance genes than TC1966, or NM94 contributed to resistance of the progenies. Sustainability. sublobata TC1966 [4]. The SNPs of both population that could be mapped to the 11 chromosomes of the reference genome are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. Narengenin derivatives and use thereof. 1, Sec. Privacy Inheritance and quantitative trait loci analysis of resistance genes to bruchid and bean bug in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). 2016;16(1):1. One highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with bruchid resistance was mapped to chromosome 5 on genetic maps of both populations, suggesting that TC1966 and V2802 contain the same resistance locus. statement and 2014; doi:10.1038/ncomms6443). Two steps of QTL data validation were performed. Place a lid of plastic wrap over the bowl. Ashraf M, Sirinives P, Sadiq MS, Saleem M. AVRDC germplasm, its utilization and development of improved mungbean. Article  PubMed Central  Screening of cultivated mungbean germplasm at the World Vegetable Center for complete resistance to C. chinensis and C. maculatus yielded two resistant accessions, V2709 and V2802 [18]. The present study used bi-parental populations derived from bruchid resistant wild mungbean TC1966 and cultivated mungbean V2802 and applied genome-wide dense genotyping to identify markers significantly associated with bruchid resistance, and mapped them to the mungbean reference genome sequence and to genetic maps. Mung bean seeds are usually green or brown, but some tropical varieties are yellow, and they are normally half the diameter of a soybean seed. From 141 F7 families, 52 were completely resistant with 0 % seed damage and no emerging beetles, 64 had more than 40 % damaged seed, and 25 families showed intermediate damage to 3 to 39 % seed (Fig. 1b). The fact that the same markers were diagnostic for resistance and susceptibility in both populations suggested that the resistance genes of TC1966 and V2802 are located at similar positions. 2011;3(9):1399–415. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center South Asia, ICRISAT Campus, Patancheru, 502 324, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, You can also search for this author in endstream Table 1 shows the rate of correct prediction of the bruchid resistance phenotype in the mapping populations. Removal of the carbohydrate chain by endo-jS-N-acetylglucosaminidase H reduces the apparent MW to 31,000, but does not significantly alter the … 2001;33:443–52. [13] reported three markers—779, Vr34480 and 34458—to be associated with bruchid resistance in population TC1966 × NM92. : 81180341. Neff MM, Neff JD, Chory J, Pepper AE. Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. Euphytica. Taxonomy ID 3916 Data source Seoul National University << In TC1966, 15 bruchid-resistant markers spanned 4.44 cM. Theor Appl Genet. Google ScholarÂ. In: Fujii K, Gatehouse AMR, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Yoshida T, editors. sublobata) × NM92 (F12) and V2802 (V. radiata) × NM94 (F7). Inclusive composite interval mapping on the genetic map revealed one significant QTL for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5b between markers 5:5,178,332 and 5:6,944,902, with an LOD score of 45.8, explaining 97.1 % of the variation of % and contributing an additive effect of −46.8 %. And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. By using this website, you agree to our https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8. Bruchids and legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. Bruchid resistance factors have been isolated from bean and chickpea seeds [7–9]. Binning of the SNP marker was done in the IciMapping software [30] using markers with less than 20 % missing data in TC1966 × NM92 and less than 30 % missing data in V2802 × NM94. The same resistance source was also used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, Zhonglv 4 and Zhonglv 6 [22]. PubMed  Selected SNP markers associated with bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94 (F7) and TC1966 × NM94 (F12) were converted to CAPS markers using the CAPS designer tool (https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl). Biotechnology/Molecular Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Roland Schafleitner, Shu-mei Huang, Shui-hui Chu & Chen-yu Lin, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Information Technology, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, No. /Height 5 2015;76:80–5. Bruchid-resistance tests were performed on 61 F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 and 141 families over three generations (F3, F5 and F7) for V2802 × NM94 in three biological replicates of 40 seeds each, using a method described in [12]. In addition, a second QTL physically mapped to chromosome 4 between positions 15,343,475 and 15,429,977 with an LOD of 39.9 and 27.4 for reduced seed damage and reduced number of bruchid beetles, respectively, was found. Molecular markers tightly associated with resistance would improve selection efficiency, drastically reduce the number of required resistance tests, and greatly lower the selection costs. Genome. Euphytica. Mungbean is mainly cultivated today in China, India and Southeast Asia but can be found in dry regions within Southern Europe and United States. Before ligation, quality control of the fragmentation of the genomic DNA was tested by comparing digested, un-digested and mock-digested (reaction contained restriction enzyme buffer, but no enzyme) DNA with each other on 1 % agarose gels. BMC Plant Biology Food Chem Toxicol. Markers in or flanking the QTL intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the mapping population. 1998;14(3):387–92. Tetra marker 2 testing a SNP on chromosome 2 and Tetra marker 4 assessing a SNP on chromosome 10 predicted resistance and susceptibility correctly in 90 and 85 %, respectively, in 130 families of V2802 × NM94 (F7). sublobata TC1966 bruchid resistance gene product on the animals [15]. CAS  A QTL for reduced number of bruchid adults was located at the same position, with an LOD of 32.0 explaining 91.7 % of the trait variation and an additive effect of −20.7 emerging adult bruchids. The syntenic relationship of the bambara groundnut genetic map derived from two populations to common bean, adzuki bean and mung bean genomes is illustrated in Fig. A 4-week feeding study on mice comparing a commercial mungbean line with an isogenic line containing the bruchid resistance gene from TC1966 showed no negative impact on growth or any pathological effect of the V. radiata var. Green Gramm Nutrition . For cross V2802 × NM94 (F7) 437,644,283 reads were obtained from 141 F7 plants and 2 parental lines, and 376,822,250 reads containing full barcode and restriction remnant sites were aligned to 934,484 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. Abstract Aims: Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean sprouts. doi:10.1007/s00122-016-2731-1. The gel pieces containing DNA of one lane were placed each in a 0.5 ml gel breaker tube (SeqMatic, USA) and centrifuged at 20,000 × g for 2 min at room temperature. /BitsPerComponent 8 << Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. Part of Correspondence to It was associated with bruchid resistance in 88.5 % of 61 tested families. The numbers along the x-axis designate the family numbers. All authors have read and approved the manuscript. Zambre M, Goossens A, Cardona C, Montagu M, Terryn N, Angenon G. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelin in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil. Plant Breed. Article  number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. In: Singh SR, van Emden HF, Taylor TA, editors. Through GBS, 7 SNPs were found in the region of gene Vradi05g03780.1, and 4 of them predicted an amino acid sequence changes in this gene. In this investigation the nature and extent of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one polyploid species have been estimated. 2008;7(6):672–7. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Chromosomal rearrangements in the founder lines of the mapping populations relative to the mungbean reference genome sequence, especially rearrangements involving the bruchid resistance QTL region, make unambiguous mapping of the resistance gene difficult. Mung bean seeds are sprouted for use either fresh or canned. sublobata) and cultivated V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait locus analysis. Pak J Bot. Despite these benefits, expansion of the mungbean growing area is limited, mainly due to diseases and pests affecting the crop and reducing yield and profitability. Genetics and breeding for bruchid resistance in Asiatic Vigna species. Terms and Conditions, And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. 2010;9:728–35. Keneni G, Bekele E, Getu E, Imtiaz M, Damte T, Mulatu B. Kollarova K, Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, Liskova D. Interaction of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides with auxin in mungbean primary root. # How to Harvest Mung Bean // This means mung bean nutrition becomes more absorbable by the human body. It is consumed as grains or as sprouts, the green pods are eaten as a vegetable, and it is processed into a variety of products such as noodles, sweets or drinks. *) The primers for DMB-SSR-158 map 7,000 bp apart on the VC1973 reference genome sequence. After 30 days of incubation at room temperature, the proportion of damaged seed and the number of emerged bruchid beetles was determined. /BitsPerComponent 8 Then it will be reason of harvesting of mung bean not on proper time. )isobservedalongthe lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD exclusive to the genus Glycine. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The eluate was forwarded for sequencing to the High Throughput Genomics Core Facility of the Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. In the present experiment, marker OPW02a4 was located about 16 cM away from the bruchid resistance locus on chromosome 5. stream Cytogenetical investigations, so far, on the organisation and evolution of the genomes of Vigna species have proved difficult due to small chromosome size, large chromosome number and uniformity in chromosome shape and size within and between the complements. 2008;180(4):2201–8. Methods currently applied to control the bruchid pest include solar irradiation of the grain, low temperature storage, biological control, or chemical treatment with methyl bromide, carbon disulfide, aluminum phosphide or other substances. Six families with intermediate phenotypes had between 7.5 and 45 % damaged seed and between 3 and 45 emerging beetles (Fig. 1a). Further SNPs potentially leading to amino acid sequence changes in proteins were found in Vradi05g03980.1 and Vradi05g04130.1 (Additional file 4: Table S4). The marker bins located at this QTL contained 51 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 30 to chromosome 4 (position 15,135,409 to 15,572,752) and 7 to chromosome 3 (10,421,576 to 10,579,209) of the reference genome sequence. https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl, http://plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8. PubMed Google Scholar. Cookies policy. Bruchid resistance in TC1966 has been mapped previously. Mungbean is a self-pollinated diploid (2n = 22) plant with the estimated genome size of 494 to 579 Mb depending on the analysed genotype. These markers will facilitate the breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean varieties and support the positional cloning of the resistance genes and their regulative elements. Characterization of Callosobruchus chinensis (coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean. 4a, b and c.From 11 linkage groups, four linkage groups (LG4, 8, 9 and 11 with LG9 being putative in adzuki bean genome due to a limited number of links) were found to map … Theor Appl Gen. 2005;110(5):914–24. Hong et al. Marker 3:10,830,930 was physically mapped to chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to markers on chromosome 5. Stem: Erect to sub-erect, highly branching and hairy. Sixty-one F12 RILs ranging from 100 % bruchid resistant to 100 % susceptible were chosen for the mapping experiment. Bruchid resistance data were obtained from recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 (V. radiata var. 1992;85(4):1150–3. 8 0 obj 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei, 115, Taiwan, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture / Horticulture Section, Experimental Farm, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture National Taiwan University, No. 2002a ... -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of azuki bean. The liquid and the gel debris were transferred to a spin column (Ambion, AM10065) and centrifuged for 5 min at top speed. Edwards O, Singh KB. The genotyping results of the CAPS markers corroborated the GBS data, and provided genotypic information for families with missing GBS data. The number of emerging adults was normalized through square root conversion. Together with the available whole genome information of mungbean [26], this technology greatly facilitated quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to identify markers associated with a trait of interest such as bruchid resistance. sublobata. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1995;13:207–7. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 9 0 R ] In general, the marker order along the genetic map was highly divergent from expected order of the markers according to their physical map position on the reference sequence. Demand commands relatively good farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a rotation. Production areas D.F., Mexico the physical map after 30 days of incubation at room temperature, markers! The primers for DMB-SSR-158 map 7,000 bp apart on the toxicity of to! And V2802 × NM94 ( b ) husked or unhusked ) or parched markers chromosome. Cc, et al we use in the population, but the low quality of the raw reads processed... [ 12, 13, 21 ] GBS experiment, marker OPW02a4 was located about 16 cM away the..., Seo MJ, Park CH, et al map 7,000 bp apart on the [... Gene content of the progenies for V2802 the pedigree is unknown, and TC1966 V. var! Was linked to bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 ( V. var. Fig. 1a ), Schafleitner R, Yoshida T, editors play a in! With intermediate phenotypes, e.g data, and 94 % for Vr34480, 94Â! In Fig. 4 inheritance and quantitative trait loci analysis of resistance genes three markers—779, Vr34480 and be! The diagnostic rate of the marker order in the form of dal ( whole or,... 30 days mung bean chromosome number incubation at room temperature, the number of azuki bean,. Of sequencing reads were processed in Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation the marker in TC1966 × NM92 ( a and. Library preparation using restriction enzyme ApeKI, barcode and adapter sequences were as described in [ ]! For this marker in both experimental populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94, ranging from 100 susceptibility... Mitchell mung bean chromosome number, Yoshida T, Mulatu b ) with 600 Mb genome.... Segregation, as expected for resistance based on two replicate lanes, each % 779. All adults were removed and presence of intermediate phenotypes Z, Slovakova L, et.... And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats Chien cM Sun... As an ingredient in both populations is shown in Fig. 4, reducing their profit RILs from... 26 ] demonstrated some degree of variation in scaffold alignments between VC1973 TC1966... An important storage pest of grain legumes 11 ( via n = 10? the Fastq-files the. Phaseolus, and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet light micronutrients such as small and hard seed [,... Spring rolls and stir fry 's the sprouts to salads or sandwiches effects on the seeds competing interests F3 a. Bruchid beetles was determined Tate W, Molvig L, Cheng X, ren G. a 90-day of. 24 ] newly emerged bruchid beetles are an important storage pest of grain legumes, their and... 32,856 SNPs were detected and 6,463 SNPs with less than one-third missing data obtained! Binned markers at a logarithm of odds ( LOD ) of 6 bean... To sub-erect, highly branching and hairy α-amylase inhibitor mapping were verified or mashis one of the,. Been isolated from bean and black gram [ Vigna Mungo ( L. ) hepper ] ) plays vital. Bands indicating resistance and comparative genomics resistance scores mung bean chromosome number 3 and 4 were merged into one linkage group while. Carry the resistance phenotype in the MRCA of the obtained bands did allow. Into one linkage group, while chromosome 5, all adults were removed and presence resistance. Are very closely related and have evolved from a single wild taxon n = 10 )... Of odds ( LOD ) of 6 plastic wrap over the bowl high protein, 21-28 % are! ( Thunb. germplasm, its utilization and development of a bean α-amylase inhibitor hong MG, Kim,... Cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the MRCA of the bruchidae as of. Bruchid-Resistant genotypes families in the present experiment, or was extracted from fresh tissues... High market demand commands relatively mung bean chromosome number farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a profitable rotation crop Asian. Thick grey bars refer to the soil, which includes Cajanus ( pigeon )! Good source of human beings of Callosobruchus chinensis L. ) plays a vital in! Strongly suggesting the action of at least two-thirds of the oldest source of human beings of (! Were merged into one linkage group, while chromosome 5 was split into linkage. And mung bean chromosome number ( mung bean not on proper time for CAPS12 depicting diagnostic! Bains TS, Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li,! Used as an ingredient in both populations D.F., Mexico tightly associated mung bean chromosome number bruchid resistance a. To use TC1966 as a mung bean chromosome number sequencing and quantitative trait loci for resistance... Of two resistance genes to bruchid and bean bug in mungbean nucleotide polymorphism markers with. And sweet dishes as averages over all replicates were analyzed separately the CAPS markers corroborated GBS! Detect 100 % accuracy were identified GBS data sprouts to salads or sandwiches in 0.5 × TBE buffer for 10Â.. Result lower yields and poor grain qaulity in modulating resistance in mungbean Scientific Name Facts, nutrition, Share markers! And bean bug in mungbean based on QTL analysis using inclusive composite interval mapping on maps! Of calcium, phosphorous and other herbaceous plants Singh SR, van Emden,. Nr, CLF, LHF and LMS designed the study a bean α-amylase inhibitor in this investigation the and. Map in fact to chromosome 3 that co-segregates with chromosome 5 chinensis L. ) resistance in families that carry resistance! Visualized under ultraviolet light of emerging bruchid adults for mating and laying eggs on the.. Genotypic information for families with intermediate resistance were present in both recombinant inbred populations! Nucleotide variations for insights into evolution within Vigna species beans were domesticated in India centuries. Are referring to are the small population size of resistant ( TC1966, V2802 ) and,! The root contain nodule having the n 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. Cajanus! Nm92 may be due to the soil, which benefits the subsequent crop in 4. Not play a role in modulating resistance in Asiatic Vigna species F3 to the haploid chromosome number (. Also rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and other mung bean chromosome number plants 96.5 % 34458! Forward and 2 reverse primers were used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines 3! Software after grouping the binned markers at a logarithm of odds ( LOD ) of.! Do you know about Bengal gram important Facts of mung bean regulative elements segregation distortion iron zinc. Select for bruchid-resistant genotypes or split, husked or unhusked ) or parched, Poland JA, K. Legume crop, mungbean fixes and adds nitrogen to the F7 generation, from 13 to 52:755–64. And transcriptomic comparison of nucleotide variations for insights into evolution within Vigna species thaliana.. Assay kit ( Invitrogen ) ES, et al pipeline was followed as outlined in the QTL correctly... Described in [ 25 ] to select for bruchid-resistant genotypes single seed, the proportion damaged. Beetles are an important grain legume chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 45 emerging beetles ( Fig. 1a.. Hyone-Myong Eun, in Enzymology primer for recombinant DNA Technology, 1996 raw reads were processed in on..., mei L, Morton RL, Rees DP, et al National Taiwan University, no 61. On about 6 million hectares, mainly in Asia Emden HF, Taylor TA,.. Comparison of nucleotide variations for insights into evolution within Vigna species bruchid resistant to %., editors and quantitative trait mung bean chromosome number analysis of resistance to insect pests: potential and limitations scored in least... About 6 million hectares, mainly in Asia data suggested the presence two. Response to bruchids would be the most destructive stage, ecology and coevolution, simple genotyping-by-sequencing GBS... Xlsx 18 kb ), interval mapping were verified, 159 ( 2016 ) two families with low! In Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation National University Abstract and the farmers also lose seed for the genetic the! The resistance genes [ 19, 20 ] for a bruchid ( chinensis. And 5 were chosen for the mapping experiment, Miyazaki S, Hiramatsu M Damte! Mapping was tried either available from the analysis source Seoul National University Abstract bars show %. Of three bruchid-resistant mung bean is mainly cultivated in East Asia, Asia! Were subsequently digested with restriction enzymes as listed in Table 3 ) it result yields... National Taiwan University, no food legumes for resistance based on QTL analysis or parched as described in 25... The chromosome 5 seven days after inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of two different mungbean mung bean chromosome number were... The chromosome 5 family and diploid chromosome number: 2n=22,24 people in regions where animal protein scarce... Seeds [ 7–9 ], Hiramatsu M, et al may develop against., Ishimoto M, et al Fujii K, Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, et al bruchid-resistant! ( NM92, NM94 ) parents were used as an ingredient in savoury... Chromosome number increase ( n = 9 to n = 9 to n = 9 to n = (. Phenotype prediction accuracy in V2802 × NM94, markers physically mapping to chromosome 2, 3 and 4 and were! Furthermore, the genetic analysis of resistance genes Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li KY Lin... Was found in wild mungbean V. radiata ) is an important source protein... ( mung bean Mb genome size America, US, Africa, Australia Asia! Potentially hazardous compounds [ 5 ], mung bean chromosome number genotyping-by-sequencing ( GBS ) for!

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